Throughout history, people have used many methods to clean their teeth. Some ancient people chewed on frayed twigs. Others rubbed their teeth with cloth or swabbed them in vinegar. The Egyptians may have been the first people to use toothpaste when they mixed powdered pumice (a porous rock formed in volcanic eruptions) with vinegar and applied it to their teeth in the 100's B.C. Some toothpastes still contain pumice, but science has since supplied other toothpaste ingredients that the ancient Egyptians never dreamed existed.
Mass spectrometry enables the major league to sniff out athletes guilty of doping. It can also help us locate oil or design a killer perfume. Who says chemistry isn't cool?
That's one seriously big number, and technically Amedeo Avogadro didn't even come up with it. So how did the Italian chemist make such an indelible (numerical) mark on the wonderful world of chemistry?