Barnard, Edward Emerson (1857-1923), a United States astronomer. He discovered 16 comets, Jupiter's fifth satellite, and many dark nebulae. He also discovered one of the closest stars to the solar system, a dim star now called Barnard's star. Barnard made an excellent photographic survey of the Milky Way and helped establish the use of photography in astronomy.
Barnard was born in Nashville, Tennessee, and in boyhood was educated largely by his mother. He learned photography as a photographer's assistant in Nashville. He graduated from Vanderbilt University and served on the staffs of the Lick Observatory (1887-95) and the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago (1895-1923).