Lockyer, Sir Joseph Norman (1836-1920), an English astronomer. He was one of the first to study the sun and stars with a spectroscope. In 1868 he identified the eruptions seen around the sun with an upper layer of the solar gases, which he named the chromosphere. He found a way to observe these eruptions without waiting for eclipses (a discovery also made by P. J. C. Janssen in France). Also in 1868 Lockyer, working with Sir Edward Frankland, identified the element helium in the sun.
Lockyer led eight expeditions to observe total eclipses of the sun. He was a professor at the Royal College of Science, 1890-1913, and was knighted in 1897. Lockyer founded the journal Nature in 1869.