Schally, Andrew Victor (1926-) is a Polish-born American biochemist. He won the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research concerning the role of certain hormones (useful chemical substances) in the chemistry of the body. Schally shared the prize with two other American scientists: Roger Charles Louis Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, who independently did related research.

Schally was born on Nov. 30, 1926, in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania). From 1945 to 1948, he studied in England at the University of London. He was a research assistant at the National Institute for Medical Research (later called the Medical Research Council) in London from 1949 to 1952.

In 1952, Schally entered McGill University in Montreal, Canada. There he began to study the endocrine glands, glands that produce and release hormones into the blood. Schally received a B.S. degree in 1955 and a Ph.D. degree in biochemistry in 1957.

From 1957 to 1962, Schally was assistant professor of physiology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, where he met and worked with Guillemin. He became an American citizen in 1962. That year, he also became associate professor of medicine at Tulane University School of Medicine and chief of the Endocrine and Polypeptide Laboratory at the Veterans Administration Hospital (now the Endocrine, Polypeptide, and Cancer Institute at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center) in New Orleans. He was promoted to full professor at Tulane in 1967.

Schally's research was concentrated on hormones produced by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, two important endocrine glands involved in a wide range of body functions. Schally artificially produced thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH).