Hill, Archibald Vivian (1886-1977) was a British physiologist. He won the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discoveries on heat production and oxygen use in the muscles. Hill shared the prize with the Gorman biologist Otto Fritz Meyerhof for his independent research into the production of lactic acid in the muscles.
Archibald Vivian Hill was born on Sept. 26, 1886, in Bristol. He graduated from Cambridge University in 1909. In 1913, he married Margaret Neville Keynes, sister of the English economist John Maynard Keynes. They had four children.
After earning his degree, Hill continued to do research in physiology at Cambridge until World War I (1914–1918) began in 1914. Hill rose to the rank of major and worked to develop antiaircraft weapons. In 1918, he was knighted and was elected a fellow (member) of the Royal Society, the leading scientific organization in the United Kingdom.
In 1920, Hill became professor of physiology at Manchester University. He conducted experiments using frog leg muscles and worked with human subjects to study the production of heat and to measure oxygen consumption during muscular action. His experiments involved measuring extremely small temperature changes lasting only fractions of a second. Hill's work, combined with Meyerhof's, advanced scientific understanding of these muscular processes.
Hill was a professor of physiology at University College in London from 1923 to 1926. Prom 1926 to 1951, he was Foulerton Research Professor of the Royal Society at the college. From 1940 to 1945, during World-War II (1939–1945), he served as a member of Parliament. Hill died from complications from a viral infection on June 3, 1977, in Cambridge.