Monod, Jacques (1910-1976), was a French biochemist who shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Francois Jacob and Andre Lwoff. Together they discovered the process by which genes manufacture the proteins needed for individual development.
Jacques Lucien Monod was born in Paris. He studied science at the University of Paris and received a B.S. degree in 1931. In 1934, he returned to the University of Paris as an assistant in the zoology laboratory. He earned his Ph.D. degree there in 1941.
During World War II (1939-1945), Monod was active in the French Resistance, using his laboratory at the university as an underground meeting place and propaganda print shop. He was captured by the Gestapo but managed to escape. He received several military honors, including the Croix de Guerre and the American Bronze Star.
From 1945 to 1953, Monod headed the cellular biochemistry department at the Pasteur Institute. During that time he began working with Lwoff and Jacob. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the basic molecule of living cells, and its complement, ribonucleic acid (RNA), had been discovered in the late 1940's and the 1950's. However, their precise relationship remained unknown. While studying bacteria cells, the team discovered a class of genes that controls the activity of other genes. They introduced the concept of operons, which includes a type of gene that controls the activity of a group of genes. The operons also suppress the activities of the enzyme-synthesizing genes by affecting the synthesis of messenger RNA. The team concluded that RNA carries the information encoded in the DNA and enables the cell to produce the vital proteins and enzymes. Radiation and some chemicals can cause these controlling genes to function improperly. If this happens, the other genes may get out of control and damage the cells. The discovery aided research on cancer, a disease in which uncontrolled cell division takes place.
Monod became director of the institute in 1971. He was also a professor at the Faculte des Sciences in Paris from 1959 to 1967, and at the College de Moore, Patrick
Patrick Moore, a British broadcaster and author, has been instrumental in popularizing astronomy, particularly in Britain, through his books and regular television broadcasts. Since 1957, he has been the host of The Sky at Night,” a popular BBC television program.
Alfred Caldwell Patrick Moore was born at Pinner, Middlesex, England, in 1923. When he was six months old, his family moved to Sussex, where he still lives. As a child, he suffered poor health that often kept him from school, and so he received much of his education privately at home. It was also during his childhood that he read a copy of The Story of the Solar System, which inspired his lifelong interest in astronomy.
During World War II (1939-1945) he served with the Royal Air Force. After the war, from 1945 to 1952, he was an assistant at a flight training school. He had a talent for communication, and became a freelance writer, writing mainly about astronomy. In 1965, he became director of the Armagh Planetarium in Northern Ireland. He held that post until 1968, when he returned to full-time writing and broadcasting.
Despite his popular appeal, Moore's research and work has always been taken seriously. In 1959, his charts were used by the Russians to correlate the first Lunik 3 pictures of the far side of the moon. He also was involved in the lunar mapping done before the NASA Apollo missions.
Besides his television program, Moore has also written more than 60 books on astronomy, including The Amateur Astronomer (1957) and Moon Flight Atlas (1969).
In 1971, Moore was elected an honorary member of the Astronomic-Geodetic Society of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1977. In 2001, he was knighted “for services to the popularization of science and to broadcasting.”