Dubos, René Jules (1901–1982), a United States scientist. In 1939 while working with soil bacteria, he developed tyrothricin, the first commercially produced antibiotic. His work spurred other scientists follow the same line of research, leading to the development of the antibiotics penicillin and streptomycin. Late in life Dubos largely concerned himself with environmental issues, and won a Pulitzer Prize for his environmental study So Human an Animal (1968).

Dubos was born in Saint Brice, France, and came to the United States in 1924. After he received his doctorate in 1927 from Rutgers University, he began teaching at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University). He retired in 1971.