Waksman, Selman Abraham (1888–1973), a Russian-born United States microbiologist. He was awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine for his discovery, with his students, of streptomycin in 1943. Waksman also discovered various other antibiotics. He helped found the Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University in 1949 with royalties from the sale of streptomycin.

Waksman came to the United States at the age of 22 and became a citizen in 1916. He received a bachelor's and a master's degree from Rutgers University and, in 1918, a Ph.D. from the University of California. His books include Principles of Soil Microbiology (1927, 1952) and My Life with the Microbes (1954).