Chemists have changed the way that science looks at the world. By breaking substances down to the atomic level, chemists have greatly expanded our knowledge of the world. Click here to find articles about the greatest chemists in history.


Gilbert Newton Lewis

Lewis, Gilbert Newton (1875-1946), a United States chemist. Lewis made important studies in thermodynamics and its application to chemistry, and he contributed to the theory of valence (the capacity of atoms to combine with other atoms).

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  • William Henry Perkin
    William Henry Perkin

    Perkin, Sir William Henry (1838-1907), an English chemist. In 1856, while working with coal tar chemicals in an attempt to synthesize quinine, Perkin, then only 18, developed the first synthetic dye mauve, or aniline purple. See more »

  • Adolf Friedrich Butenandt
    Adolf Friedrich Butenandt

    Butenandt, Adolf Friedrich Johann (1903-1995), a German biochemist, studied the structure of male and female sex hormones. See more »

  • Adolf Otto Windaus
    Adolf Otto Windaus

    Adolf Otto Windaus (1876-1959), a German chemist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1928 for his research into sterols (complex, solid, unsaturated alcohols) and their connection with vitamins, particularly vitamin D. See more »

  • Adolf von Baeyer
    Adolf von Baeyer

    Baeyer, Adolf von (1835-1917), a German chemist, won the 1905 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on organic chemical structure and his contributions to the synthetic dye industry. See more »

  • Alan Graham MacDiarmid
    Alan Graham MacDiarmid

    MacDiarmid, Alan Graham (1927-), a New Zealand-born American chemist. He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in chemistry with American physicist Alan Jay Heeger and Japanese chemist Hideki Shirakawa who discovered and developed plastic materials through which electric current can flow. See more »

  • Albrecht Kossel
    Albrecht Kossel

    Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in using methods of organic chemistry to study physiology, particularly that of tissues and cells. See more »

  • Alexander Crum Brown
    Alexander Crum Brown

    Brown, Alexander Crum (1838-1922), was a Scottish chemist who established the system of representing chemical compounds in the form of diagrams, with connecting lines representing bonds. See more »

  • Alexander Ivanovich Oparin
    Alexander Ivanovich Oparin

    Oparin, Alexander Ivanovich (1894-1980), a Soviet biochemist, is best known for his theory on the origins of life on earth from chemical substances. See more »

  • Alexander Todd
    Alexander Todd

    Todd, Alexander, also known as Lord Todd, (1907-1997) was a British biochemist who contributed to the understanding of the protein composition of cells. See more »

  • Alfred Werner
    Alfred Werner

    Werner, Alfred (1866-1919), a French-born Swiss chemist, opened new areas of research in chemistry with his explanation of the internal structure of complex inorganic compounds. See more »

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