Cairngorm, (also called Scottish topaz or smoky quartz), a smoky, yellow-brown variety of quartz. It is named for the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland. The stone is highly prized in Scotland and is used for various ornamental purposes. Its value depends on transparency and shading. The mineral has been found in Great Britain, Siberia, Spain, and Switzerland, and near Pikes Peak, Colorado.
The world of our far-future descendants may be as unrecognizable to us as our bustling, urbanized world would be to our bewildered ancient forefathers. Will energy drive many of those changes?
A sculpted mammoth shows visitors to the La Brea Tar Pits what these ancient animals might have looked like, but the pits themselves have looked the same for thousands of years. How did they form, and what discoveries lie beneath the sticky surface?