Permian Period, the geologic period that began about 280,000,000 years ago and lasted 55,000,000 years. It is named for Perm, Russia, where rocks of the period were first studied systematically. The Appalachian and Ural mountains were formed during the Permian Period, and the colorful red rocks of the southwestern United States are mostly of Permian age.
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When you think about fossils, you probably picture the big-money stuff: T-Rex skeletons, perfectly preserved mammoths and the like. Compared to them, the vast majority of fossils are relatively tiny and seemingly insignificant.