Permian Period, the geologic period that began about 280,000,000 years ago and lasted 55,000,000 years. It is named for Perm, Russia, where rocks of the period were first studied systematically. The Appalachian and Ural mountains were formed during the Permian Period, and the colorful red rocks of the southwestern United States are mostly of Permian age.
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Petrified Wood, wood that has been fossilized by being turned into stone. Petrifaction is a natural process that may form fossils from the solid remains of any plant or animal.