|
Lots More Information
10 Treasures We’ll Lose as Sea Levels Rise
The oceans are rising, and they're threatening to take down some of the world's brightest cultural gems. Here are 10 of the most notable spots potentially endangered by climate change. Read more »

Author's Note: 10 Innovations in Water Purification

I grew up what used to be known as the Steel Valley in western Pennsylvania, where the river that we depended upon for drinking water was polluted with everything from heavy metals and acids from strip mines to raw sewage. Yet somehow, when it came out of our taps, the water looked crystal clear and tasted OK. I always was puzzled about that, and wondered what elaborate technology was required to render it potable. Researching this article was interesting to me, because I got to learn about both the history of water purification, and what recent innovations may ensure that people across the planet have access to clean water.

Related Articles

Sources

  • Bowling, Brian. "Water From Mon River Loaded With Particles." Valley Independent. Oct. 24, 2008. (March 31, 2013) http://www.uppermon.org/news/Pgh-Alleg/VI-Water_Loaded-24Oct08.htm
  • Brodrick, Sean. "The Ultimate Suburban Survivalist Guide: The Smartest Money Moves to Prepare for Any Crisis." John Wiley and Sons. 2010. (March 31, 2013) http://books.google.com/books?id=Imh5a-V_qaIC&pg=PA132&dq=henry+doulton+water+filter&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DfhYUe3MCoXC4AOI5oCwBA&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=henry%20doulton%20water%20filter&f=false
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Drinking Water Treatment Methods for Backcountry and Travel Use." CDC. Feb. 20, 2009. (March 31, 2013) http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/pdf/drinking/Backcountry_Water_Treatment.pdf
  • Chandler, David L. "A New Approach to Water Desalination." MIT News. July 2, 2012. (March 31, 2013) http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/graphene-water-desalination-0702.html
  • Dawney, Brittney and Pearce, Joshua M. "Optimizing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method by Decreasing Turbidity With NaCl." Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2012. (April 3, 2013) http://www.iwaponline.com/washdev/002/washdev0020087.htm
  • DoultonUSA. "How the Doulton System Works." DoultonUSA. Undated. (March 31, 2013) http://doultonusa.com/HTML%20pages/how%20it%20works.htm
  • Environmental Protection Agency. "The History of Drinking Water Treatment." EPA. February 2000. (March 31, 2013) http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/consumer/pdf/hist.pdf
  • Greenemeier, Larry. "A Fine Brine: New Desalination Technique Yields More Drinkable Water." Scientific American. May 21, 2012. (March 31, 2013) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=desalination-membrane-tech
  • Hassan, Fekri A. "Water Management and Early Civilizations: From Cooperation to Conflict." Unesco. (March 31, 2013) http://webworld.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp/cd/pdf/history_future_shared_water_resources/water_management_early.pdf
  • Huisman, L. and Wood, W.E. "Slow Sand Filtration." World Health Organization. 1974. (April 1, 2013) http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/ssf9241540370.pdf
  • Lederer, Edith M. "Clean Water: World's Nations Meet U.N. Target for Safe Drinking Water Ahead Of Schedule." Huffington Post. March 6, 2012. (March 31, 2013) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/06/clean-water_n_1323175.html
  • Mandal, Dr. Ananya. "Nanoparticles -- What Are Nanoparticles?" News-medical Net. April 1, 2013. (April 1, 2013) http://www.news-medical.net/health/Nanoparticles-What-are-Nanoparticles.aspx
  • Natural Resources Defense Council. "Arsenic in Drinking Water." Feb. 12, 2009. (April 1, 2013) http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/qarsenic.asp
  • New York Times. "Cholera." (April 1, 2013)http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/cholera/traveler's-diarrhea.html
  • Plappally, Anand, et al. "A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Filters and Influences on the General Health of Nigeria." Health Behavior and Public Health. May 19, 2011. (March 31, 2013) http://www.asciencejournal.net/asj/index.php/HBPH/article/view/109/pdf_37
  • Resource Development International -- Cambodia. "Ceramic Water Filter Handbook." February 2009. (March 31, 2013) https://www.engineeringforchange.org/static/content/Water/S00067/Ceramic%20filter%20manual%20no-appendices.pdf
  • Samarrai, Fariss. "U.Va. Nonprofit Organization, PureMadi, Develops Innovative Water Purification Tablet for Developing World." UVA Today. Feb. 5, 2013. (April 1, 2013)https://news.virginia.edu/content/uva-nonprofit-organization-puremadi-develops-innovative-water-purification-tablet-developing
  • Solomon, Steven. "Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power and Civilization." Harper Collins. 2010. (March 31, 2013). http://books.google.com/books?id=mCvX5SvbWL4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
  • ScienceDaily. "Herbal Defluoridation of Drinking Water.". March 5, 2013. (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130305100928.htm
  • ScienceDaily. "Innovative Water Purification Tablet for Developing World." Feb.3, 2013 (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130208105307.htm
  • ScienceDaily. "Nanotechnology for Water Purification." July 28, 2010. (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100728111711.htm
  • ScienceDaily. "Novel Bacterial Strains Clear Algal Toxins From Drinking Water." Sept. 10, 2009. (March 31, 2013)
  • Science Daily. "'Plastic Bottle' Solution for Arsenic-Contaminated Water Threatening 100 Million People." Sept. 1, 2011. (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110831205923.htm
  • ScienceDaily. "Simple Way to Remove Mud from Drinking Water." May 1, 2012. (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120501134315.htm
  • ScienceDaily. "'Super Sand' for Better Purification of Drinking Water." June 23, 2011. (March 31, 2013) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110622102831.htm
  • SteriPEn. "Technology." (March 31, 2013) http://www.steripen.com/ultraviolet-light/
  • Stone, Matthew. "Travel Light, Drink Safe Water." Morning Sentinel. March 28, 2010. (April 1, 2013) http://www.onlinesentinel.com/news/travel-light-drink-safe-water_2010-03-27.html
  • Westmoreland County Municipal Authority. "Source Water Assessment Public Summary." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. May 2002. March 31, 2013) http://www.elibrary.dep.state.pa.us/dsweb/Get/Document-59367/McKeesport%20RS5020025001.pdf
  • World Health Organization. "Fluoride." (April 1, 2013)http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/naturalhazards/en/index2.html
|