Champagnes and sparkling wines are treated somewhat differently than other wines:
- The grapes are grown and fermented the same as with any other wine.
- After fermentation, the wines are aged for about five months.
- The wine is bottled with extra yeast and sugar. The bottles are capped to allow for a second round of fermentation, which lasts for about a year.
- The wine is aged for one or more years after the second fermentation.
- The yeast is removed through riddling, whereby the bottle is placed upside-down and rotated one-eighth of a turn every day. The dead yeast cells settle into the neck of the bottle.
- The neck of the bottle is frozen in an ice/salt water bath and the cork is removed. The pressure forces the frozen plug of dead yeast cells out of the bottle. This process is called disgorging.
- A mixture of white-wine brandy and sugar (dosage) is added to top off the bottle.
- The bottle is corked and wired to secure the high pressure inside.