Subkingdom Tracheophyta

The tracheophytes are plants with well-developed vascular systems. Most contain chlorophyll. Though all plants produce spores, only the higher (more complex) plants also produce seeds, which develop in cones or in flowers.

Division Psilophyta

Whisk ferns. Most primitive of vascular plants. Branching, leafless stems; no true roots.

Division Lycophyta, or Lycopodophyta

Club mosses. Branching stems with numerous small leaves. Spores produced by club-shaped organ.

Division Sphenophyta

Horsetails. Jointed stems with whorls of leaves.

Division Pterophyta, or Filicinophyta

Ferns. Have feathery leaves called fronds.

Division Cycadophyta

Cycads. Palmlike. Produce seeds in cones.

Division Ginkgophyta

The ginkgo. Has fan-shaped leaves. Produces seeds in fleshy, roundish structures.

Division Gnetophyta

Gnetophytes, such as welwitschia. Produce seeds in cones.

Division Coniferophyta

Conifers. Have needlelike or scalelike leaves. Mostly evergreen. Produce seeds in cones.

Division Anthophyta, or Angiospermophyta

Flowering plants. Largest plant division. Produce seeds in flowers.