Like HowStuffWorks on Facebook!

How Symbiosis Works

        Science | Evolution

Lots More Information

Related HowStuffWorks Articles

More Great Links


  • Bäckhed, Fredrik, Manchester, Jill K., Semenkovich, Clay F. and Gordon, Jeffrey I. "Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice." Proceeedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Jan. 16, 2007.
  • Margulis, Lynn. Symbiotic Planet : A New Look at Evolution. Basic Books, March 2000.
  • Perry, Nicolette. Symbiosis: Nature in Partnership. Blandford, April 1990.
  • University of Glasgow. "The Normal Gut Flora."­departments/humannutrition/students/resources/meden/Infection.pdf
  • Wakeford, Tom. Liaisons of Life: From Hornworts to Hippos--How the Unassuming Microbe has Driven Evolution. Wiley; New Ed edition (March 29, 2002).
  • Young, Allen M. Lives Intertwined: Relationships Between Plants and Animals. Franklin Watts (October 1996).