Meyerhof, Otto Fritz (1884-1951), a German-born American biochemist, shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into oxygen consumption by muscles, and the relationship of oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid (a chemical produced in the body by muscular activity) and carbohydrates within the muscle.
Berg, Paul (1926-), an American biochemist and molecular biologist, has been at the forefront of genetic engineering, both as an inventor of a pioneering procedure and as an advocate concerned about the risks of genetic research.
Greengard, Paul (1925-) shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery of how dopamine and a number of other transmitters in the brain exert their action in the nervous system.
Medawar, Peter Brian (1815-1987), was a British zoologist who shared the 1960 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Sir Macfarlane Burnet of Australia for their work on the body's rejection of tissue transplants.
Dulbecco, Renato (1914-), an Italian-born American virologist, shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with David Baltimore and Howard Martin Temin of the United States for their research on how certain viruses affect the genes of cancer cells.
Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1909-), an Italian and American neurobiologist, became the fourth woman ever to be awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which she shared in 1986 with American biochemist Stanley Cohen .
Holley, Robert William (1922-1993) was an American biochemist. He shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American biochemist Marshall Warren Nirenberg and Indian-born American chemist Har Gobind Khorana.
Hubbard, Ruth (1924-) is an Austrian-born American biologist and biochemist whose contributions to the study of the biochemistry and photochemistry of vision in vertebrates and invertebrates have greatly advanced the understanding of the field.
Luria, Salvador Edward (1912-1991), an Italian-born American biologist, shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with German-born American biophysicist Max Delbrück and American biologist Alfred D.
Moore, Stanford (1913-1982) was an American biochemist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in chemistry with American scientist William Howard Stein for their pioneering research into the structure and chemistry of proteins.
Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866-1945), a United States geneticist. During 1909-15, Morgan and his assistants discovered three essential principles of genetics-sex linkage, linkage and crossing over, and sex determination.