How do you build an underwater tunnel?

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Author's Note: How do you build an underwater tunnel?

In writing this article, I could only touch on the basics of constructing underwater tunnels, which is an injustice comparable to equating defusing a bomb with programming a DVR. In reality, the dangers involved and the precision required in constructing an underwater tunnel are simply staggering. Excavating and constructing these modern marvels requires nothing short of constant vigilance, keen adaptability and minute adjustments to changing conditions, to say nothing of the care that workers and divers must exercise.

It's something worth thinking about the next time you find yourself traveling through an underwater tunnel. Perhaps it will distract you from the millions of tons of earth or water pressing down or, if you are in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, from the sound of water tinkling in through the walls to be drained by the pumps at 20 tons per minute.

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