Organic Farming Criticism
There are mixed feelings from conventional farmers and the agricultural industry about organic farming. Many in the industry are not convinced organic foods are more nutritious or that organic methods trump scientific advances, citing for example that farming with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) to help lessen world hunger outweighs any potential environmental risk.
Restricted use of antibiotics in organic farming has led to concern about high levels of microbes in manure, in turn causing food poisoning such as E. coli. There is a lack of sufficient evidence to prove organics suffer from a higher than conventional level of microbes, but right now studies favor organic products. The Soil Association suggests the handling of manures on organic farms are actually more likely to reduce levels of organisms, and that less than 5 percent of food poisoning outbreaks are due to fruit and vegetable contamination. Research continues to be conducted on the use of organic waste in all types of farming.
Additionally, a report in 2002 suggests organic and free-range chickens might be more likely to have Campylobacter infections, a known cause of food poisoning. Subsequent studies are underway.
Even as organic farming methods work to protect the environment by building healthy soils and emphasizing natural systems, without proper management and knowledge, organic practices can create pathogen problems.
The environmental benefits of organic farming are a hotly debated topic, and researchers continue to study how sustainable methods may help cure -- or at least help negate -- some of the effects of any environmental hazards produced by the modern-day agricultural system, hopefully reducing levels of chemicals put into the soil and atmosphere and our bodies. Conventional wisdom follows that the more we understand about our food sources and how they affect our bodies and the environment, the better.
For more organic-related articles and links, visit the next page.
Related HowStuffWorks articles
More Great Links
- "Environmental and Heritable Factors in the Causation of Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine. 2000.
- "Organic Farming, Food Quality and Human Health." Soil Association. 2001.
- "Transitioning to Organic Production." USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), 2006.
- American Farm Bureau http://www.fb.org/
- ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service http://attra.ncat.org/
- Balfour, Lady Eve. Towards a Sustainable Agriculture -- The Living Soil. 1977.
- Bessin, Rob. "Ladybugs." University of Kentucky College of Agriculture. 2007.
- Bugg, R. L., and C. Waddington. Using Cover Crops to Manage Arthropod Pests of Orchards - a Review. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 1994.
- Hurt, R. Douglas, Problems of Plenty: The American Farmer in the Twentieth Century. 2002.
- Ifoam.org | International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. http://www.ifoam.org/
- Journal of Applied Nutrition, Vol. 45, #1. 1993.
- Kuepper, George. Organic Farm Certification & the National Organic Program.
- Landeck, Jonathon. Organic Farming Research Foundation: 2007 Farm Bill Perspectives. 49th annual National Market News Association Conference, Chicago, IL. 2006.
- Natural Marketing Institute, Health & Wellness Trends Database, March 2006<!--[if !supportLists]-->· Northbourne, Lord. "Look to the Land" 1940.
- Organic Trade Association. http://ota.com/index.html
- SavATree Insect Control. http://www.savatree.com/garlic-insect-repellent.html
- Steiner, Rudolf. "Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture." Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association. 1993.
- Sullivan, P. Overview of cover crops and green manures. ATTRA. 2003.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/
- USDA Economic Research Service. http://www.ers.usda.gov/
- USDA National Organic Program. http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop
- "20 questions on genetically modified foods." World Health Organization. 2007.