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  • Ackerman, Kenneth J, Ph.D. "The Universal People." (May 13, 2009)
  • DataFace. "Facial Expression: A Primary Communication System." (May 14, 2009)
  • Devlin, Kate. "Missing facial muscles make some look glum." The Daily Telegraph. June 17, 2008.
  • Ekman, Paul; et al. "Final Report To NSF of the Planning Workshop on Facial Expression Understanding." Aug. 1, 1992.
  • Foreman, Judy. "A Conversation with: Paul Ekman; The 43 Facial Muscles That Reveal Even the Most Fleeting Emotions." The New York Times. Aug. 5, 2003.
  • Lewis, Michael. Handbook of emotions (second edition). Guilford Press, 2004. ISBN 1593850298, 9781593850296.,M1
  • Nicolay, Christopher W., Ph.D. Associate Professor, UNCA Department of Biology. E-mail correspondence. May 14, 2009.
  • Patel, Alpen A., MD. "Facial Nerve Anatomy." Mar. 18, 2009.

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