# How Code Breakers Work

After the invention of the telegraph, it was now possible for individuals to communicate across entire countries instantaneously using Morse code. Unfortunately, it was also possible for anyone with the right equipment to wiretap a line and listen in on exchanges. Moreover, most people had to rely on clerks to encode and decode messages, making it impossible to send plaintext clandestinely. Once again, ciphers became important.

Germany created a new cipher based on a combination of the Polybius checkerboard and ciphers using key words. It was known as the ADFGX cipher, because those were the only letters used in the cipher. The Germans chose these letters because their Morse code equivalents are difficult to confuse, reducing the chance of errors.

The first step was to create a matrix that looked a lot like the Polybius checkerboard:

 A D F G X A A B C D E D F G H I/J K F L M N O P G Q R S T U X V W X Y Z

Cryptographers would use pairs of cipher letters to represent plaintext letters. The letter's row becomes the first cipher in the pair, and the column becomes the second cipher. In this example, the enciphered letter "B" becomes "AD," while "O" becomes "FG." Not all ADFGX matrices had the alphabet plotted in alphabetical order.

Next, the cryptographer would encipher his message. Let's stick with "How Stuff Works." Using this matrix, we'd get "DFFGXD GFGGGXDADA XDFGGDDXGF."

The next step was to determine a key word, which could be any length but couldn't include any repeated letters. For this example, we'll use the word DEUTSCH. The cryptographer would create a grid with the key word spelled across the top. The cryptographer would then write the enciphered message into the grid, splitting the cipher pairs into individual letters and wrapping around from one row to the next.

 D E U T S C H D F F G X D G F G G G X D A D A X D F G G D D X G F

Next, the cryptographer would rearrange the grid so that the letters of the key word were in alphabetical order, shifting the letters' corresponding columns accordingly:

 C D E H S T U D D F G X G F D F G A X G G G D A G F D X D D F G X

He would then write out the message by following down each column (disregarding the letters of the key word on the top row). This message would come out as "DDG DFDD FGAD GAG XXFF GGDG FGXX." It's probably clear why this code was so challenging -- cryptographers enciphered and transposed every plaintext character. To decode, you would need to know the key word (DEUTSCH), then you'd work backward from there. You'd start with a grid with the columns arranged alphabetically. Once you filled it out, you could rearrange the columns properly and use your matrix to decipher the message.

 Words Count One of the ways you can guess at a key word in an ADFGX cipher is to count the number of words in the ciphered message. The number of ciphered words will tell you how long the key word is -- each ciphered word represents a column of text, and each column corresponds to a letter in the key word. In our example, there are seven words in the ciphered message, meaning there are seven columns with a seven-letter key word. Sure enough, DEUTSCH has seven letters. Because the ciphered words and the original message can have different word counts -- seven ciphered words versus three plaintext words in our example -- deciphering the message becomes more challenging.

In the next section, we'll look at some of the devices cryptographers have invented to create puzzling ciphers.