Biologists, or those who study biology, have contributed many of the greatest findings in science. A biologist might study anything from cells to human evolution, but their focus always relates back to the study of life.

Ames, Adelbert, Jr. (1880-1955) was a visual physiologist who studied optics and perception.

Claude, Albert (1899-1983), a Belgian American cell biologist, helped establish modern cell biology and developed methods to analyze cell structures.

Kinsey, Alfred Charles (1894-1956), a United States zoologist. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953) were the result of many years of research by Kinsey and his associates.

Hershey, Alfred Day (1908-1997) was an American biologist. He shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with the German-born American biologist Max Delbrück and the Italian-born American biologist Salvador Edward Luria for their work on bacteriophages, viruses that attack bacteria.

Sturtevant, Alfred H. (1891-1970) was an American geneticist and the first to discover the procedure for gene mapping.

Schally, Andrew Victor (1926-) is a Polish-born American biochemist. He won the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research concerning the role of certain hormones (useful chemical substances) in the chemistry of the body.

Kornberg, Arthur (1918-), an American physician and biochemist, was the first to discover how molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) duplicate within bacterial cells and also the first to devise a method for synthesizing this process in a laboratory setting.

Gray, Asa (1810-1888), a United States botanist. Gray made important improvements in the system used to classify plants.

McClintock, Barbara (1902-1992), a United States geneticist. She won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1983 for her discovery that certain genes in corn can move from one position to another along the length of a chromosome, causing genetic mutations.

Commoner, Barry (1917-) is an American biologist and educator who has become known as a leading environmental activist.

Bridges, Calvin Blackman (1889-1938) was an early geneticist whose pioneering work helped formulate important basic concepts.

Bessey, Charles Edwin (1845-1915), an American botanist and administrator, developed world-class botanical programs in the United States.

Merriam, Clinton Hart (1855-1942), was an American physician and zoologist. His expeditions for wildlife study in the western United States led to a compilation of data that helped to define the geographic distribution of animals and plants throughout the country.

Nathans, Daniel (1928-1999), an American microbiologist, shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with his colleague Hamilton Othanel Smith and with Werner Arber of Switzerland.

Baltimore, David (1938-), an American microbiologist, is one of the most influential and controversial biologists of his time and a pioneer in DNA recombinant techniques.

Fairchild, David (Grandison) (1869-1954), a United States horticulturist. In 1898 Fairchild began a long career as an agricultural explorer for the U.S.

Hubel, David Hunter (1926-) is a Canadian-born American neurobiologist and neurophysiologist.

Fossey, Dian (1932-1985) was an American zoologist who studied the mountain gorilla of the Virunga Mountains in east-central Africa.

Fischer, Edmond Henri (1920-) is an American biochemist who made important discoveries about how cell proteins regulate muscle contractions.

Doisy, Edward Adelbert (1893-1986) was an American biochemist who shared the 1943 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Danish researcher Henrik Dam for their discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

Lewis, Edward B. (1918-2004) was an American biologist who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his studies on genetics using fruit flies.

Kendall, Edward Calvin (1886-1972), was an American biochemist and endocrinologist who studied the structure and effects of hormones in the thyroid and adrenal glands.

Tatum, Edward Lawrie (1909-1975), was an American biochemist who helped demonstrate that genes regulate specific chemical processes For that work, he shared the 1958 Nobel Prize physiology or medicine with George Wells Beadle and Joshua Lederberg.

Wilson, Edward Osborne (1929-) is an American biologist known for his contributions to the study of animal societies.