Biologists, or those who study biology, have contributed many of the greatest findings in science. A biologist might study anything from cells to human evolution, but their focus always relates back to the study of life.


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J. Michael Bishop

Bishop, J. Michael (1936-), an American cancer researcher, investigated oncogenes, or tumor-producing genes, turning over previously held theories about how cancer develops.

Jack Horner

Horner, Jack (1946-) is an American paleontologist who made many discoveries of dinosaur fossils.

Jacques Loeb

Loeb, Jacques (1859-1924), a German-American experimental biologist and physiologist.

James Batcheller Sumner

Sumner, James Batcheller (1887-1955), a United States biochemist. He shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry for 1946.

James Dewey Watson

Watson, James Dewey (1928-), an American molecular biologist, helped determine the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the carrier of genetic material in living organisms.

Janet Rowley

Rowley, Janet (1925-) is an American geneticist, a scientist who investigates the structure, function, and transmission of genes.

Jesse William Lazear

Lazear, Jesse William (1866-1900), was an American physician and bacteriologist who, as part of a commission on yellow fever, made one of the most significant discoveries in tropical medicine—that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito, of the species now known as Aedes aegypti.

Jewel Isadora Plummer Cobb

Cobb, Jewel Isadora Plummer (1924-) is an American biologist known both for her research in cell biology and for promoting science education among minorities and women.

John Franklin Enders

Enders, John Franklin (1897-1985) was an American research bacteriologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American virologist Thomas Huckle Weller and bacteriogist Frederick Chapman Robbins.

Joseph Erlanger

Erlanger, Joseph (1874-1965), a United States physiologist. For work on the functions of the nerve threads, Erlanger shared with Herbert Spencer Gasser the 1944 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

Joshua Lederberg

Lederberg, Joshua (1925-) is an American geneticist and pioneer in the field of bacterial genetics.

Karl Landsteiner

Landsteiner, Karl (1868-1943), an Austrian-American pathologist. He was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery and classification of the four primary types of human blood.

Kary Banks Mullis

Mullis, Kary Banks (1944-), an American biochemist, shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Michael Smith of Canada for inventing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allowed duplication of a single gene fragment.

Leland Harrison Hartwell

Hartwell, Leland Harrison (1939-), an American geneticist, advanced understanding of the fundamental principles that govern cell division through his studies of yeast-cell replication.

Lewis John Stadler

Stadler, Lewis John (1896-1954) was an American geneticist who did pioneering research on the effects of X rays upon mutation in plants.

Liberty Hyde Bailey

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1858-1954), a United States botanist and horticulturist. He pioneered in establishing college extension courses for farmers and wrote authoritative works on horticulture.

Lynn Margulis

Margulis, Lynn Alexander (1938-), an American biologist, helped advance the study of the origins of cells.

Margaret Morse Nice

Nice, Margaret Morse (1883-1974), an American ornithologist, became one of the world's foremost bird behaviorists by adapting the techniques of psychology to the study of bird behavior.

Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Nirenberg, Marshall Warren (1927-), an American biochemist, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his role in deciphering the genetic code.

Martin Rodbell

Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998) was an American biochemist. He won the 1994 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into signaling mechanisms in cells.

Matthew Stanley Meselson

Meselson, Matthew Stanley (1930-), an American molecular biologist, is best known for his experimental confirmation, in collaboration with Franklin William Stahl, of the Watson-Crick theory of DNA replication.

Maxine Singer

Singer, Maxine (1931-) is an American biochemist and geneticist who has been a leading voice in the debate over the issues and ethics surrounding the development of recombinant DNA techniques, which combine DNA fragments from different types of cells or transplant them from one form of life to other forms.

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Meyerhof, Otto Fritz (1884-1951), a German-born American biochemist, shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into oxygen consumption by muscles, and the relationship of oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid (a chemical produced in the body by muscular activity) and carbohydrates within the muscle.

Paul Berg

Berg, Paul (1926-), an American biochemist and molecular biologist, has been at the forefront of genetic engineering, both as an inventor of a pioneering procedure and as an advocate concerned about the risks of genetic research.

Paul Bigelow Sears

Sears, Paul Bigelow (1891-1990) was an American botanist, a scientist who studies plants.