Biologists, or those who study biology, have contributed many of the greatest findings in science. A biologist might study anything from cells to human evolution, but their focus always relates back to the study of life.
Lazear, Jesse William (1866-1900), was an American physician and bacteriologist who, as part of a commission on yellow fever, made one of the most significant discoveries in tropical medicine—that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito, of the species now known as Aedes aegypti.
Enders, John Franklin (1897-1985) was an American research bacteriologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American virologist Thomas Huckle Weller and bacteriogist Frederick Chapman Robbins.
Landsteiner, Karl (1868-1943), an Austrian-American pathologist. He was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery and classification of the four primary types of human blood.
Mullis, Kary Banks (1944-), an American biochemist, shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Michael Smith of Canada for inventing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allowed duplication of a single gene fragment.
Meselson, Matthew Stanley (1930-), an American molecular biologist, is best known for his experimental confirmation, in collaboration with Franklin William Stahl, of the Watson-Crick theory of DNA replication.
Singer, Maxine (1931-) is an American biochemist and geneticist who has been a leading voice in the debate over the issues and ethics surrounding the development of recombinant DNA techniques, which combine DNA fragments from different types of cells or transplant them from one form of life to other forms.
Meyerhof, Otto Fritz (1884-1951), a German-born American biochemist, shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into oxygen consumption by muscles, and the relationship of oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid (a chemical produced in the body by muscular activity) and carbohydrates within the muscle.
Berg, Paul (1926-), an American biochemist and molecular biologist, has been at the forefront of genetic engineering, both as an inventor of a pioneering procedure and as an advocate concerned about the risks of genetic research.
Greengard, Paul (1925-) shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery of how dopamine and a number of other transmitters in the brain exert their action in the nervous system.