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  • BBC. "Africa Elephants 'ditch tusks' to survive." Sept. 25, 1998.http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/180301.stm
  • CBC News. "Infants show early signs of altruism." March 2, 2006. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2006/03/02/altruism060302.html
  • Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 1859.
  • Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press, USA; 3 edition. May 25, 2006.
  • Keim, Brandon. "A Brief History of the Superorganism, Part One." Wired, July 11, 2007. http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/07/a-brief-history.html
  • Purves, William K., Sadava, David, Orians, Gordon H., and Heller, H. Craig. Life: The Science of Biology. Sinauer Associates and W. H. Freeman. December 5, 2003.
  • University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. "First documented case of pest resistance to biotech cotton." http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/uoa-fdc020508.php
  • Winning, Bob. "Recombination in Bacteria." http://www.emunix.emich.edu/~rwinning/genetics/bactrec.htm