How Camp X Worked

By: Ed Grabianowski

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Author's Note: How Camp X Worked

This was a fascinating slice of World War II history I'd never heard of, despite the site of Camp X being within a few hours' drive of my house. The details of the ruthless methods taught at the school are awesome in the context of World War II, since they were being used to battle the Allies truly despicable fascist enemies. It's a bit less exciting when you consider how those methods were exported and transferred to support the imperialist agendas of Britain and the U.S. in the subsequent decades. History never happens in a vacuum.

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  • Bicknell, Robin (producer) & Alex McIntosh (director). "World War II Secret Spy School." yap films. 2014.
  • Calzavara, Rebecca. "Remaining Camp X building in Whitby, Ont." The Chronicle. Oct. 28, 2016. (May 22, 2017)
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  • CBC. "Igor Gouzenko obituary." June 29, 1982. (May 20, 2017)
  • Chambers, Joh Whiteclay II. "OSS Training in the National Parks and Service Abroad in World War II." U.S. National Park Service. 1998. (May 16, 2017)
  • CIA. "What was OSS?" (May 17, 2017)
  • Clibbon, Jennifer. "A fallen hero, a daughter left behind." CBC News. May 4, 2010. (May 24, 2017)
  • Montgomery, Marc. "History: December 6, 1941 – War, spies, even James Bond." Radio Canada International. Dec. 6, 2016. (May 15, 2017)
  • Parks Canada. "Secret Intelligence Activities at Camp X." (May 17, 2017)
  • Rigden, Denis. "How to be a Spy: The World War II SOE Training Manual." Dundurn. 2004.
  • Secret Intelligence Service. "SIS: Our History." (May 16, 2017)
  • Stafford, David. "Camp X." Dodd, Mead & Company. 1987.
  • The Washington Post. "John Bross Dies at 79." Oct. 17, 1990. (May 15, 2017)