Is it possible to slow the progress of desertification or even stop it completely? Environmental experts say yes, but it will require a worldwide campaign to improve agricultural methods, regenerate plant life and conserve precious soil fertility.
The first step is to replace destructive agricultural techniques at the grassroots level. Poor farming communities in developing countries need to be taught the long-term benefits of crop rotation, the use of legumes and other cover crops to "fix" nitrogen back into the soil, sustainable irrigation methods, and techniques like terracing, which prevent water runoff and erosion in hilly, sloping landscapes [source: Ford and GreenFacts.org].
Planting millions of trees in strategic locations could do wonders for halting the expansion of current deserts and preventing the creation of new ones. The Chinese government is currently planting a nearly 3,000-mile-long (4,828-kilometer-long) belt of trees along the edge of the Gobi desert to put the brakes on dust storms and prevent dune migration. A similar "green wall" is being considered along the frontier of the Sahara [source: Ford]. On a smaller scale, simply planting trees around fields will cut winds that contribute to erosion of topsoil.
The most effective solutions to desertification are surprisingly low-tech. Researchers at a German university have developed a rehabilitation technique that relies on recycled coffee sacks. The sacks are filled with compost, seeds and a material that acts like a sponge, soaking up and holding rainwater for extended periods of time. The sacks can be dropped across the surface of a degraded dryland. Over time, as the sacks decompose and become drenched with rainwater, the seeds take root and spread out, fed by the rich compost [source: Deutsche Welle].
Some experts are finding that traditional agriculture and land management techniques are much more in tune with the fragile dryland habitat than modern methods. In Spain, for example, a British company has been successfully renovating 1,000-year-old Moorish irrigation systems [source: Ford].
There's also a consensus that dryland communities need to develop alternative livelihoods besides subsistence farming and grazing. A recent report co-authored by researchers at the United Nations University found that communities in Pakistan found success using a technique called arid aquaculture. With this method, communities can breed certain kinds of fish and even grow certain vegetables in very salty (briny) ponds [source: United Nations University]. The report also recommended the development of dryland tourist destinations and the production of soaps and other handicrafts based on native herbs, oils and wools.
To learn more about important environmental issues and green science, follow the links below.
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
More Great Links
- Ball, Liz. Horticulture Update. "Humus: It's the Dirt." July/August 2001http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/newsletters/hortupdate/julaug01/art3jul.html
- BBC News. "The Cost of Food: Facts & Figures." Oct. 16, 2008http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7284196.stm
- Business Mirror Online. "Combating desertification is key to tackling global food crisis." Nov. 9, 2008.http://businessmirror.com.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=44:science&id=1664:combating-desertification-is-key-to-tackling-global-food-crisis
- Deutsche Welle. "Coffee Sacks Stop Desertification"http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1920523,00.html
- Ford, Matt. CNN. "Desertification: How to stop the shifting sands." April 27, 2008.http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/04/25/es.desertification/index.html
- GreenFacts.org. "Scientific Facts on Desertification."http://www.greenfacts.org/en/desertification/index.htm
- The Hunger Site. "About The Hunger Site"http://www.thehungersite.com/clickToGive/home.faces?siteId=1
- International Institute of Sustainable Development. "On the Great Plains: Degradation of Prairie Soil Resources."http://www.iisd.org/agri/GPsoil.htm
- NASA. "The Pacific Dust Express." May 17, 2001http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast17may_1.htm
- New South Wales Department of Health. "NSW Health Factsheet: Dust Storms." Nov. 1, 2003http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/environmental/dust_storms.html
- PeopleandPlanet.net. "Desertification and degraded land."http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=348
- SocioeconomicData and Applications Center (SEDAC) at Columbia University. "The Causes of Land Degradation and Desertification."http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/tg/guide_glue.jsp?rd=lu&ds=4.1
- Steele, Giselle V. E: The Environmental Magazine. "Drowning in sand: environmental effects of desertification." January-February 1997.http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1594/is_n1_v8/ai_19192501
- UN News Centre. "Global food crisis could have been avoided - UN development experts." May 6, 2008http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=26578&Cr=food&Cr1=crisis
- United Nations University. "'Arid aquaculture' among livelihoods promoted to relieve worsening pressure on world's drylands." Nov. 11, 2008http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-11/unu-aa110308.php