The dead zone occurs naturally, but human activity is making it much worse by allowing tributaries to become overfilled with some nutrients while those tributaries lack in other key nutrients. Nitrogen (in saltwater) and phosphorus (in freshwater) are the nutrients that contribute most to algal blooms. A lack of silicon in the water limits the growth of diatoms, a helpful type of algae. So where's this nutrient pollution coming from? Intensive farming is the practice most commonly linked to dead zones.
Intensive farming, also called intensive agriculture, uses a large investment of capital and some combination of fertilizer, pesticides, fungicides, heavy machinery, irrigation and other modern farming techniques to maximize output from a plot of land. The practice is characterized by higher productivity and requires fewer laborers than extensive agriculture.
Critics accuse intensive-farming practitioners of harming the environment through creating animal waste and fertilizer runoff, using dangerous pesticides, contributing to animal disease and providing inhumane conditions for livestock. Today, intensive farming is both quite pervasive and productive, although the use of fertilizers, chemicals and safe environmental practices can vary drastically depending on the farmers and government regulation.
Some scientists cite the ethanol craze as a contributor to the dead zone. The use of biofuel crops means more corn than ever is being planted in the United States. Corn requires a lot of fertilizer, which is full of nitrogen that seeps into groundwater and ends up in the Mississippi by way of local rivers. Nitrogen levels in the Mississippi River were up 35 percent in May 2007 compared to 2002, and the river's water levels were down more than 20 percent compared to five years prior, causing a huge influx of algal blooms [Source: The Herald Tribune].
Loss of wetlands has drastically reduced the ability of regional ecosystems to remove nitrogen from local waters. Seven Midwestern states lost 35 million acres of wetlands over the last 200 years, while 50 percent of wetlands are gone from Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas [Source: NOAA].
Despite the dead zone's gradual expansion, scientists argue that we have the capability to reduce it. Limiting the use of nitrogen-rich fertilizers, implementing water conservation and recycling practices, and preventing sewage leaks and runoff from waste treatment plants should all help to keep nitrogen levels down. In 1998, the U.S. Congress passed the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act, which called for examining the research and working to contain harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Researchers at universities and the NOAA are using modeling techniques to estimate how much of certain compounds need to be removed in order to reduce the dead zone's size.
Ironically, the dead zone could be positively affected by an active hurricane season. A major contributing factor to dead zones is when water becomes stratified -- warm, fresh water settles on top of colder, saltier water. This stratification limits the aeration of deeper waters as algal blooms settle to the bottom and decay. A hurricane could stir up the Gulf waters, dispersing some of the algae and partially replenishing oxygen levels. The NOAA predicts seven to 10 hurricanes for 2007, with three to five of them qualifying as "major hurricanes" [Source: NOAA]. While these storms may stir up the dead zone and possibly increase the brown shrimp catch, they will come at a time when Gulf Coast communities are still recovering from the devastation of hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
For more information about dead zones, algal blooms and other related topics, check out the links below.
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More Great Links
- "'Dead zone' in Gulf of Mexico among top 3 ever mapped." Associated Press. CNN.com. July 29, 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/07/29/dead.zone.ap/index.html
- "Distribution of HABs in the US." The Harmful Algae Page. http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/HABdistribution/HABmap.html
- "Gulf dead zone to be biggest ever." BBC News. July 18, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6904249.stm
- "Harmful Algal Blooms." Texas Parks and Wildlife. Feb. 9, 2007. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/landwater/water/environconcerns/hab/
- "Hypoxia & Nutrient Pollution." Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research. NOAA. April 12, 2007. http://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/pollution/welcome.html
- "In Depth: Red Tide." Herald Tribune. Feb. 21, 2007. http://www.heraldtribune.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?CATEGORY=NEWS20§ioncat=134090
- "intensive agriculture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 23 July 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9042533/intensive-agriculture
- "Intensive farming v. organic farming." BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/biology/livingthingsenvironment/4foodandsustainabilityrev5.shtml
- "NOAA Predicts Above Normal 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season." NOAA Magazine. http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/s2864.htm
- "Record Size Dead Zone Forecast in Gulf of Mexico." Environment News Service. July 20, 2007. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jul2007/2007-07-20-09.asp
- "Red Tide and Harmful Algal Blooms." The Harmful Algae Page. Jan. 22, 2007. http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/
- "Report: Oxygen-depleted 'dead zone' growing in Gulf." Associated Press. CNN.com. July 17, 2007. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/07/17/gulf.deadzone.ap/
- "The Causes of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico." NOAA. http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/ecosystems/hypoxia/images/hypox_finalcauses.pdf
- "The Problem of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico." NOAA. http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/ecosystems/hypoxia/images/hypox_finalprob.pdf
- Cox, Tony. "As ethanol demand grows, so does 'Dead Zone' in Gulf of Mexico." Bloomberg News. International Herald Tribune. July 23, 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/22/bloomberg/bxdead.php
- O'Neil, Dennis. "Intensive Agriculture." Patterns of Subsistence. http://anthro.palomar.edu/subsistence/sub_5.htm
- Spinner, Kate. "Dead zone looks to be expanding in Gulf of Mexico." Herald Tribune. July 20, 2007. http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20070720/NEWS/707200510
- Vosgerchian, Jessica. "What's eerie about Erie?" Michigan Daily. Nov. 14, 2006. http://media.www.michigandaily.com/media/storage/paper851/news/2006/11/14/State/Whats.Eerie.About.Erie-2458015.shtml?norewrite200611141537&sourcedomain=www.michigandaily.com&mkey=2200913
- Zabarenko, Deborah. "Gulf of Mexico "dead zone" could expand this year." Reuters UK. July 17, 2007. http://uk.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUKN1723032420070717