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  • Battersby, Stephen. “Fold testament: what shape is the universe?” New Scientist. Dec. 7, 2006. http://space.newscientist.com/article/mg19225811.300-fold-testament- what-shape-is-the-universe.html
  • Castellanos, Joel. “The Shape of Space.” NonEuclid. http://www.cs.unm.edu/~joel/NonEuclid/space.html
  • “The Geometry of the Universe.” Astronomy 162. University of Tennessee. http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/cosmology/geometry.html
  • “Gravitational Constant.” Eric Weinstein’s World of Physics. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/GravitationalConstant.html
  • Hawking, Stephen. “A Brief History of Time.” Bantam Books. New York. 1998.
  • Kurtus, Ron. “Newton’s Universal Gravity Equation.” School for Champions. Aug. 29, 2007. http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/gravity_universal_ equation.htm
  • Luminet, Jean-Pierre. “The Shape of Space after WMAP data.” Brazilian Journal of Physics. Vol. 36, no. 1B. March, 2006. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjp/v36n1b/a02v361b.pdf
  • “Torus.” Wolfram MathWorld. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Torus.html
  • “What is the structure of the universe?” The Official String Theory Web Site. http://www.superstringtheory.com/cosmo/cosmo2.html