Famous Scientists

You may have heard the names Nikola Tesla and Marie Curie before, but do you know what they contributed to science? Here you can learn about some of the most famous scientists in the world.

Swift, Hewson Hoyt (1920-2004) was an American microbiologist. His research on cell biology and genetics contributed to the understanding of the structure of chromosomes and the function of DNA.

Temin, Howard Martin (1934-1994) was an American molecular biologist and virologist who discovered that genetic information in ribonucleic acid (RNA) can be copied into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

J. Craig Venter, an American biochemist and businessman, is a pioneer in research on the human genome, the genetic instructions that control heredity in humans.

Bishop, J. Michael (1936-), an American cancer researcher, investigated oncogenes, or tumor-producing genes, turning over previously held theories about how cancer develops.

Horner, Jack (1946-) is an American paleontologist who made many discoveries of dinosaur fossils.

Loeb, Jacques (1859-1924), a German-American experimental biologist and physiologist.

Sumner, James Batcheller (1887-1955), a United States biochemist. He shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry for 1946.

Watson, James Dewey (1928-), an American molecular biologist, helped determine the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the carrier of genetic material in living organisms.

Rowley, Janet (1925-) is an American geneticist, a scientist who investigates the structure, function, and transmission of genes.

Lazear, Jesse William (1866-1900), was an American physician and bacteriologist who, as part of a commission on yellow fever, made one of the most significant discoveries in tropical medicine—that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito, of the species now known as Aedes aegypti.

Cobb, Jewel Isadora Plummer (1924-) is an American biologist known both for her research in cell biology and for promoting science education among minorities and women.

Enders, John Franklin (1897-1985) was an American research bacteriologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American virologist Thomas Huckle Weller and bacteriogist Frederick Chapman Robbins.

Erlanger, Joseph (1874-1965), a United States physiologist. For work on the functions of the nerve threads, Erlanger shared with Herbert Spencer Gasser the 1944 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

Lederberg, Joshua (1925-) is an American geneticist and pioneer in the field of bacterial genetics.

Landsteiner, Karl (1868-1943), an Austrian-American pathologist. He was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery and classification of the four primary types of human blood.

Mullis, Kary Banks (1944-), an American biochemist, shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Michael Smith of Canada for inventing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allowed duplication of a single gene fragment.

Hartwell, Leland Harrison (1939-), an American geneticist, advanced understanding of the fundamental principles that govern cell division through his studies of yeast-cell replication.

Stadler, Lewis John (1896-1954) was an American geneticist who did pioneering research on the effects of X rays upon mutation in plants.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1858-1954), a United States botanist and horticulturist. He pioneered in establishing college extension courses for farmers and wrote authoritative works on horticulture.

Margulis, Lynn Alexander (1938-), an American biologist, helped advance the study of the origins of cells.

Nice, Margaret Morse (1883-1974), an American ornithologist, became one of the world's foremost bird behaviorists by adapting the techniques of psychology to the study of bird behavior.

Nirenberg, Marshall Warren (1927-), an American biochemist, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his role in deciphering the genetic code.

Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998) was an American biochemist. He won the 1994 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into signaling mechanisms in cells.

Meselson, Matthew Stanley (1930-), an American molecular biologist, is best known for his experimental confirmation, in collaboration with Franklin William Stahl, of the Watson-Crick theory of DNA replication.

Singer, Maxine (1931-) is an American biochemist and geneticist who has been a leading voice in the debate over the issues and ethics surrounding the development of recombinant DNA techniques, which combine DNA fragments from different types of cells or transplant them from one form of life to other forms.