Some of the greatest scientific discoveries haven't resulted in Nobel Prizes.
Louis Pasteur, who lived from 1822 to 1895, is arguably the world's best-known microbiologist. He is widely credited for the germ theory of disease and for inventing the process of pasteurization — which is named after him — to preserve foods. Remarkably, he also developed the rabies and anthrax vaccines and made major contributions to combating cholera.
But because he died in 1895, six years before the first Nobel Prize was awarded, that prize isn't on his resume. Had he lived in the era of Nobel Prizes, he would undoubtedly have been deserving of one for his work. Nobel Prizes, which are awarded in various fields, including physiology and medicine, are not given posthumously.
During the current time of ongoing threats from emerging or reemerging infectious diseases, from COVID-19 and polio to monkeypox and rabies, it is awe-inspiring to look back on Pasteur's legacy. His efforts fundamentally changed how people view infectious diseases and how to fight them via vaccines.
I've worked in public health and medical laboratories specializing in viruses and other microbes, while training future medical laboratory scientists. My career started in virology with a front-row seat to rabies detection and surveillance and zoonotic agents, and it rests in large part on Pasteur's pioneering work in microbiology, immunology and vaccinology.