Pavlov was the son of a Russian Orthodox priest. He attended the Military Medical Academy at St. Petersburg, receiving his medical degree in 1883. In 1890 he became director of the physiology department of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, and in 1897 was made a professor at the Military Medical Academy. After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, he became director of physiological laboratories at the Russian Academy of Medicine.
Merrifield, Robert Bruce (1921-) is an American biochemist who won the 1984 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his method of producing peptides and proteins.
Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906-1979), a British biochemist. In the late 1930's, he and the British pathologist Howard W.