Haldane, the family name of two British biologists, father and son.

John Scott Haldane

(1860 – 1936), a physiologist, made important discoveries about human respiration. His research contributed to safety in mining and deep diving. He graduated in medicine from the University of Edinburgh in 1884.

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane

(1892 – 1964), the son, was a geneticist, biochemist, and physiologist. his most important contributions were in genetics. He was known especially for his application of mathematical analysis to such genetic phenomena as the mutation rate of certain genes in a population of plants or animals, and the relation of these phenomena to evolution. Like his father, Haldane did notable work in human physiology and helped to improve safety measures for deep-sea divers and submarine personnel.

Haldane graduated from Oxford University and taught at Cambridge and other universities. In 1957 he went to India, where he became a citizen in 1961.

J.B.S. Haldane's most important scientific writings are Animal Biology (with J.S. Huxley, 1927); Enzymes (1930); Biochemistry of Genetics (1953). His many books popularizing science for the layman include Daedalus (1924); Science Advances (1947); and Everything has a History (1951).