Babcock, Stephen Moulton (1843-1931), a United States agricultural chemist. He introduced the Babcock test for butterfat in 1890. Probably his greatest contribution was in the field of nutrition; through feeding experiments with cows, he discovered the nutritional value of various feeds and laid the groundwork for the later discovery of vitamins.

Babcock was born in Bridgewater, New York. He studied chemistry at Tufts, Cornell, and Gottingen, Germany. After serving as a chemistry instructor at Cornell, he worked at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York. From 1887 to 1913 he was professor of agricultural chemistry at the University of Wisconsin.