Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert (1824-1887), a German physicist. Investigations in spectrum analysis enabled Kirchhoff and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen to discover the elements cesium (1860) and rubidium (1861). Kirchhoff formulated laws concerning heat radiation and electrical circuits. He was born in the East Prussian city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) and studied at the university there. Kirchhoff taught physics at the universities of Breslau, Heidelberg, and Berlin.
He may have been born in Brooklyn, but Carl Sagan was gunning for the stars as soon as he arrived in this world. Get to know the scientist whose infectious delight in the universe still holds us spellbound.
One was a celebrated author, the other a famed physicist. What the two shared was a public exposure of their religious beliefs. Big E had an on-again, off-again relationship with God, while C.S. was an avowed atheist during his early years.