Science Dictionary

Do you know what a meteor is, or what scientists mean when they are talking about cryogenics? Our collection of science terms explains the meaning of some of the most common scientific ideas.

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Paul Berg

Berg, Paul (1926-), an American biochemist and molecular biologist, has been at the forefront of genetic engineering, both as an inventor of a pioneering procedure and as an advocate concerned about the risks of genetic research.

Paul Bigelow Sears

Sears, Paul Bigelow (1891-1990) was an American botanist, a scientist who studies plants.

Paul Greengard

Greengard, Paul (1925-) shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery of how dopamine and a number of other transmitters in the brain exert their action in the nervous system.

Peter Brian Medawar

Medawar, Peter Brian (1815-1987), was a British zoologist who shared the 1960 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Sir Macfarlane Burnet of Australia for their work on the body's rejection of tissue transplants.

Phillip Allen Sharp

Sharp, Phillip Allen (1944-) is an American biologist. He won the 1993 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discoveries relating to the structure and function of genes.

Rachel Carson

Carson, Rachel (Louise) (1907-1964), a United States biologist and writer. Silent Spring (1962) warns of the dangers of the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides.

Renato Dulbecco

Dulbecco, Renato (1914-), an Italian-born American virologist, shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with David Baltimore and Howard Martin Temin of the United States for their research on how certain viruses affect the genes of cancer cells.

Rene Jules Dubos

Dubos, Rene Jules (1901-1982), a United States scientist. In 1939 while working with soil bacteria, he developed tyrothricin, the first commercially produced antibiotic.

Richard Charles Lewontin

Lewontin, Richard Charles (1929-), an American evolutionary geneticist, introduced the study of molecular population genetics in the 1960's.

Rita Levi-Montalcini

Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1909-), an Italian and American neurobiologist, became the fourth woman ever to be awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which she shared in 1986 with American biochemist Stanley Cohen .

Robert Bruce Merrifield

Merrifield, Robert Bruce (1921-) is an American biochemist who won the 1984 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his method of producing peptides and proteins.

Robert Waterston

Waterston, Robert (1943-), an American geneticist, is an influential scientist and administrator.

Robert William Holley

Holley, Robert William (1922-1993) was an American biochemist. He shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American biochemist Marshall Warren Nirenberg and Indian-born American chemist Har Gobind Khorana.

Ruth Hubbard

Hubbard, Ruth (1924-) is an Austrian-born American biologist and biochemist whose contributions to the study of the biochemistry and photochemistry of vision in vertebrates and invertebrates have greatly advanced the understanding of the field.

Salvador Edward Luria

Luria, Salvador Edward (1912-1991), an Italian-born American biologist, shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with German-born American biophysicist Max Delbrück and American biologist Alfred D.

Selman Abraham Waksman

Waksman, Selman Abraham (1888-1973), a Russian-born United States microbiologist.

Sewall Green Wright

Wright, Sewall Green (1889-1988), was an American geneticist who greatly influenced the fields of genetics (the study of heredity) and evolutionary biology.

Seymour Benzer

Benzer, Seymour (1921-), an American geneticist, is one of the founders of modern behavioral geneties.

Sidney Altman

Altman, Sidney (1939-), a Canadian-born American molecular biologist, transformed scientific thought about how living cells work and how life began millions of years ago.

Stanford Moore

Moore, Stanford (1913-1982) was an American biochemist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in chemistry with American scientist William Howard Stein for their pioneering research into the structure and chemistry of proteins.

Stephen Jay Gould

Gould, Stephen Jay (1941-2002), a United States paleontologist, educator, and author.

Theobald Smith

Smith, Theobald (1859-1934), a United States pathologist. His investigations of infectious diseases led to the discovery, with F.

Thomas Huckle Weller

Weller, Thomas Huckle (1915-), an American virologist, was one of the first scientists to grow the poliomyelitis virus on tissues outside the body.

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866-1945), a United States geneticist. During 1909-15, Morgan and his assistants discovered three essential principles of genetics-sex linkage, linkage and crossing over, and sex determination.

Vincent Du Vigneaud

Du Vigneaud, d$uY vēn'yō, Vincent (1901-1978), a United States biochemist. He received the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his isolation and synthesis of oxytocin, a hormone important in childbirth, and vasopressin, a hormone that regulates blood pressure.