Hubble, Edwin P. (Powell) (18891953), a United States astronomer. Hubble revolationized astronomy by showing that the universe is much larger than had been previously believed and by providing observational evidence for the theory of an expanding universe.
Smith, Francis Graham (1923-) is a British astronomer and one of the leading authorities on radio astronomy, the branch of astronomy that studies celestial bodies by measurement and analysis of the electromagnetic radiation they emit in the wavelength range from 1 mm to 30 mm.
Whipple, Fred Lawrence (1906-) was an American astronomer who was the first to suggest that the nucleus of a comet resembled a “dirty snowball.” His research led to insights regarding the behavior of meteors and the nature of the upper atmosphere and helped establish the modern view of comets.
Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1799-1875) was a Finnish-German astronomer and professor of astronomy who compiled the Banner Durchmusterung, a catalog which recorded the positions and magnitudes of 324,198 stars of the northern celestial hemisphere.
Hale, George Ellery (18681938), a United States astronomer. He was a pioneer in the field of astrophysics, which uses the techniques of physics to study the physical qualities of the sun and other stars, and was especially noted for his studies of the sun.
Hogg, Helen Sawyer (1905-1993) was an American-born Canadian astronomer. She became known for her research on variable stars —stars whose light regularly varies in brightness because of their pulsating atmospheres.
Russell, Henry Norris (1877-1957), a United States astronomer. About 1913 he and Ejnar Hertzsprung independently noted certain relationships between stars that resulted in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, a method of classifying stars.
Bradley, James (1693-1762), an English astronomer, discovered the aberration of starlight that provided the first direct proof that the earth revolves around the sun, and the nutation, or nodding motion, of the earth's axis.
Taylor, Joseph Hooton, Jr. (1941-) is an American astrophysicist and radio astronomer acclaimed for discovering the first binary pulsar, a system of two collapsed stars that emit tremendous energy as they rotate rapidly around one another.
Fraunhofer, Joseph von (17871826), a German optician and physicist. He was the first to make a careful study of the dark lines that appear in the solar spectrum, and these lines (and similar ones from other sources) were named in his honor.