Science Dictionary

Do you know what a meteor is, or what scientists mean when they are talking about cryogenics? Our collection of science terms explains the meaning of some of the most common scientific ideas.

Horner, Jack (1946-) is an American paleontologist who made many discoveries of dinosaur fossils.

Loeb, Jacques (1859-1924), a German-American experimental biologist and physiologist.

Sumner, James Batcheller (1887-1955), a United States biochemist. He shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry for 1946.

Watson, James Dewey (1928-), an American molecular biologist, helped determine the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, the carrier of genetic material in living organisms.

Rowley, Janet (1925-) is an American geneticist, a scientist who investigates the structure, function, and transmission of genes.

Lazear, Jesse William (1866-1900), was an American physician and bacteriologist who, as part of a commission on yellow fever, made one of the most significant discoveries in tropical medicine—that the disease was transmitted by the mosquito, of the species now known as Aedes aegypti.

Cobb, Jewel Isadora Plummer (1924-) is an American biologist known both for her research in cell biology and for promoting science education among minorities and women.

Enders, John Franklin (1897-1985) was an American research bacteriologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with American virologist Thomas Huckle Weller and bacteriogist Frederick Chapman Robbins.

Erlanger, Joseph (1874-1965), a United States physiologist. For work on the functions of the nerve threads, Erlanger shared with Herbert Spencer Gasser the 1944 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

Lederberg, Joshua (1925-) is an American geneticist and pioneer in the field of bacterial genetics.

Landsteiner, Karl (1868-1943), an Austrian-American pathologist. He was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery and classification of the four primary types of human blood.

Mullis, Kary Banks (1944-), an American biochemist, shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Michael Smith of Canada for inventing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allowed duplication of a single gene fragment.

Hartwell, Leland Harrison (1939-), an American geneticist, advanced understanding of the fundamental principles that govern cell division through his studies of yeast-cell replication.

Stadler, Lewis John (1896-1954) was an American geneticist who did pioneering research on the effects of X rays upon mutation in plants.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1858-1954), a United States botanist and horticulturist. He pioneered in establishing college extension courses for farmers and wrote authoritative works on horticulture.

Margulis, Lynn Alexander (1938-), an American biologist, helped advance the study of the origins of cells.

Nice, Margaret Morse (1883-1974), an American ornithologist, became one of the world's foremost bird behaviorists by adapting the techniques of psychology to the study of bird behavior.

Nirenberg, Marshall Warren (1927-), an American biochemist, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his role in deciphering the genetic code.

Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998) was an American biochemist. He won the 1994 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into signaling mechanisms in cells.

Meselson, Matthew Stanley (1930-), an American molecular biologist, is best known for his experimental confirmation, in collaboration with Franklin William Stahl, of the Watson-Crick theory of DNA replication.

Singer, Maxine (1931-) is an American biochemist and geneticist who has been a leading voice in the debate over the issues and ethics surrounding the development of recombinant DNA techniques, which combine DNA fragments from different types of cells or transplant them from one form of life to other forms.

Meyerhof, Otto Fritz (1884-1951), a German-born American biochemist, shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his research into oxygen consumption by muscles, and the relationship of oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid (a chemical produced in the body by muscular activity) and carbohydrates within the muscle.

Berg, Paul (1926-), an American biochemist and molecular biologist, has been at the forefront of genetic engineering, both as an inventor of a pioneering procedure and as an advocate concerned about the risks of genetic research.

Sears, Paul Bigelow (1891-1990) was an American botanist, a scientist who studies plants.

Greengard, Paul (1925-) shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discovery of how dopamine and a number of other transmitters in the brain exert their action in the nervous system.