Does Earth Have Rings?

By: Laurie L. Dove  | 
Earth may have had rings billions of years ago.
© 2015 HowStuffWorks, a division of Infospace LLC

Does Earth have rings? Despite its waxing and waning, the moon seems ever-present, a familiar orb gleaming down on Earth from above. But what if one evening you looked skyward and saw not a moon, but a ring much like the ones that loop around gas giant planets like Saturn?

To answer the question at the top directly: no, Earth does not have a ring system. Not currently anyway.


Scientists believe Earth had a ring once, although that was several billion years ago. They surmise the ring appeared early in the formation of Earth's moon. According to the generally accepted giant impactor hypothesis, a planet named Theia collided with Earth in the distant past.

This collision caused an explosion of matter to rocket into Earth's orbit [source: Jenvey]. That matter formed a ring space debris, that hovered in low Earth orbit, and eventually coalesced into the moon we see today.

If Earth had rings, cities like New York far from the equator would have an impressive angled view.
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What If Earth Still Had Rings?

If this ring of debris had existed within the Roche limit, Earth might still have a ring instead of a moon. The Roche limit is a term named for the French mathematician Edouard Roche, who in 1848 figured out that a planet's gravitational pull on a moon is unequal -- a planet exerts a greater gravitational force on the side of the moon closest to the planet and a lesser gravitational force on the side facing away.

This means that if a moon, ring or other object has an orbital trajectory too close to a planet, the unequal pull of the planet's gravity could tear it apart. Essentially, the Roche limit is the minimum distance an object can be from a planet and still hold itself together by its own gravity [source: Miller].


If Earth's rings were still in place, or if by some other collision formed rings, the view of these rings from Earth would vary. It would all depend on your latitude and which direction you were facing.

The rings would mostly likely form parallel to Earth's equator and be visible in the sky from an east to west orientation. Near the equator, the rings would be like thin slices of light that erupted from distant Earth horizons and stretched into the sky as far as the eye could see.

Cities near the equator, like Jakarta, Indonesia, would see a ring around Earth more as a straight line across the sky.
© 2015 HowStuffWorks, a division of Infospace LLC

The farther away you were from the equator, the more the appearance of the rings would change. The rings would become markedly wider and more visible and would, from some vantage points, appear so close to the horizon that you could reach out and touch them.

Just as the moon currently does, the rings would reflect sunlight back to Earth at night and appear to glow. The rings would probably reflect so much sunlight that the planet would never fully plunge into darkness, but remain in a gentle twilight even in the depth of night.

During the day, the rings could potentially cause light levels on Earth to skyrocket [source: Atkinson]. And just think of all the new sayings we'd have to come up with. We'd no longer shoot for the moon, but aim for our rings instead.


Navigation and Satellite Infrastructure

Rings around the Earth would pose challenges to our current satellite infrastructure. They could interfere with satellite trajectories, telecommunications, and space exploration missions. The presence of a dense ring could also present navigational hazards for space missions leaving or entering Earth's atmosphere.

Space agencies would need to recalibrate and perhaps even redesign spacecraft to safely navigate in such an environment, not to mention the impact they'd have on research vessels like the International Space Station.


The Impact on Climate

Rings around Earth would undoubtedly have significant climatic implications. These vast sheets of debris could act as a shield in some regions, potentially preventing much the sun's rays from reaching the Earth's surface. This might lead to cooler temperatures in some areas, especially those beneath the densest parts of the ring.

Conversely, the reflected sunlight from the rings could cause a warming effect in other regions. Climate models would need to account for these new variables, making our understanding of global weather patterns even more complex.


A New Night Sky

The celestial beauty of our sky is shaped by the objects that have come to be, from the shimmering stars to the luminous moon. Imagining an Earth adorned with rings presents a wondrous alternative view of our sky. Such rings would change our perception of night and day, casting the world in a perpetual twilight and reshaping cultural references and aspirations.

While the history of our planet suggests that we once had a ring that gave birth to the moon we adore today, the idea of still possessing rings opens a door to a world of endless fascination. Whether we shoot for the moon or aim for the rings, the cosmos continues to inspire wonder and dreams in all of us.


Lots More Information

Related Articles

  • Atkinson, Nancy. "What if Earth Had Rings?" Universe Today. Nov. 20, 2009. (April 15, 2015)
  • Jenvey, Karen. ""NASA Lunar Scientists Develop New Theory on Earth and Moon formation." NASA. Oct. 30, 2012 (June 1, 2015)
  • Miller, Ron. "If Earth Had a Ring Like Saturn." iO9. May 20, 2013. (April 15, 2015)