Bentonite, the name given to a group of industrially useful clays containing the mineral montmorillonite. Bentonite clays are primarily aluminum silicates, mixed with varying amounts of sodium, calcium, or magnesium. A major use of bentonite clays is in oil-well drilling mud, a mixture of water, bentonite, and chemicals used to cool the drilling bit and carry away cuttings from the well. Certain types of bentonite expand to several times their original volume when mixed with water; they are used as sealants in dams and concrete-lined canals.
Every day, astronomers unravel a little more of the universe's inner workings, but the jury is still out on 95 percent of its contents.
Modern science allows us to break atoms down into tiny components. But can scientists use their mighty machines to recreate the foundation of the universe?