Sun Facts

  • Average distance from Earth: 93 million miles (150 million kilometers)
  • Radius: 418,000 miles (696,000 kilometers)
  • Mass: 1.99 x 1030 kilograms (330,000 Earth masses)
  • Makeup (by mass): 74 percent hydrogen, 25 percent helium, 1 percent other elements
  • Average temperature: 5,800 degrees Kelvin (surface), 15.5 million degrees Kelvin (core)
  • Average density: 1.41 grams per cm3
  • Volume: 1.4 x 1027 cubic meters
  • Rotational period: 25 days (center) to 35 days (poles)
  • Distance from center of Milky Way: 25,000 light years
  • Orbital speed/period: 138 miles per second/200 million years

The Sun's Interior: Radiative and Convective Zones

After covering the core, it's time to extend outward in the sun's structure. Next up are the radiative and convective zones.

The radiative zone extends outward from the core, accounting for 45 percent of the sun's radius. In this zone, the energy from the core is carried outward by photons, or light units. As one photon is made, it travels about 1 micron (1 millionth of a meter) before being absorbed by a gas molecule. Upon absorption, the gas molecule is heated and re-emits another photon of the same wavelength. The re-emitted photon travels another micron before being absorbed by another gas molecule and the cycle repeats itself; each interaction between photon and gas molecule takes time. Approximately 1025 absorptions and re-emissions take place in this zone before a photon reaches the surface, so there is a significant time delay between a photon made in the core and one that reaches the surface.

The convective zone, which is the final 30 percent of the sun's radius, is dominated by convection currents that carry the energy outward to the surface. These convection currents are rising movements of hot gas next to falling movements of cool gas, and it looks kind of like glitter in a simmering pot of water. The convection currents carry photons outward to the surface faster than the radiative transfer that occurs in the core and radiative zone. With so many interactions occurring between photons and gas molecules in the radiative and convection zones, it takes a photon approximately 100,000 to 200,000 years to reach the surface.