Geology is the study of the composition and physical properties of rocks, minerals, gems and other related earth materials, including diamonds and crystals. Scientists gain an understanding of the Earth's history by studying its composition.
10 Largest Deserts in the World
Lava Isn't the Only Dangerous Aspect of Volcanoes
Why Is the Thwaites Glacier Called the 'Doomsday Glacier'?
Moissanite vs. Diamond: Which Is the Best Engagement Ring?
This Sacred Quarry Is a Cornerstone of Native American Spirituality
Was the Cullinan Diamond a Royal Gift or Stolen Gem?
Velociraptor Alert: The Feathered Dinosaur Quiz
River-bottom Bones: The Strange World of Underwater Fossil Hunting
There's a Rhino-shaped Cave in Washington State
What's the difference between moissanite and diamonds? And which of these brilliant stones wins out when it comes to the engagement ring competition?
By Mitch Ryan
It's known as the "Gateway to Hell" and while it might not actually get you there, what it will unleash if it keeps thawing could truly be hellish.
If you think the largest desert in the world is hot and sandy, think again. These 10 deserts spanning the globe are massive, but they're not all sunbaked.
By Mitch Ryan
Ash flows, deadly gases and vog are just a few of the other reasons why we all need to respect volcanoes.
Native Americans have quarried red pipestone from the land that is now Pipestone National Monument for centuries. What makes this particular stone so sacred?
Scientists are concerned that the Thwaites Glacier is melting at a rapid pace, though some don't love the name "Doomsday Glacier." What does the rapid melt of this huge glacier mean for the future of our planet?
By Mark Mancini
It was the world's largest diamond when mined and today it's cut into nine gems that are all part of the British Crown Jewels. But since the death of Queen Elizabeth II, questions have emerged about its imperialist history.
By Dave Roos
Radiocarbon dating is a cornerstone of climate and archaeological sciences. But it could be threated as fossil fuel emissions negate the useful signal from atomic tests.
Arizona isn't all desert. Take Grand Falls, aka "Chocolate Falls." It is dry most of the year, but when it rains, this waterfall pours.
Split as if by a laser, the Al Naslaa rock in Saudi Arabia's Tayma Oasis baffles scientists and amateur geologists alike. How did this perfect split happen?
Trovants, found only in a small town in Romania, are stones that actually seem to move and grow. But are they alive?
The element lithium is one of just three created during the Big Bang and has been used for mental health care for decades. But now it's in higher demand than ever before.
Cinnabar's bright-red pigment has been used in jewelry, pottery and makeup for millennia. But cinnabar is also the primary ore for mercury, making it a dangerous mineral if the particles are inhaled.
The rose-red mineral rhodonite was first discovered in the 1790s in the Ural Mountains of Russia. Today it's found globally and is associated with compassion, love and healing.
Mountains might look like they're stoic and still, but research shows otherwise. Massive ones, like the Matterhorn, are moving all the time, gently swaying back and forth every few seconds.
Waterfalls are mainly reliant on precipitation to keep flowing. Here are six famous waterfalls that slowed to a trickle when drought set in.
Nutty Putty Cave, near Salt Lake City, Utah, was discovered in 1960 and sealed up forever in 2009. But why?
By Dave Roos
This beautiful pink quartz is found in numerous places throughout the world and is thought to be associated with unconditional love.
Not all diamonds are found on dry land. Many turn up in sediments below the ocean's surface. You just have to know where to look.
By Mark Mancini
Not all deserts have sand and they're certainly not all hot. They're just extremely dry and have little vegetation. That means deserts are located all over the planet, including at super-high elevations.
The Mohs hardness scale is used by geologists and gemologists as a way to help identify minerals using a hardness test. How does it work?
This ancient rock, which forms above copper deposits, is beloved for its swirling patterns and vibrant green color. It's dazzled humans for millennia as jewelry and even in décor.
Tanzanite is so rare, it is sourced from just 8 square miles in Africa. It was first discovered in the late 1960s and it burst onto the jewelry scene thanks to Tiffany & Co.
There are caves all over the world, but some are in places that are hard to explore — hidden by rocks, ruins or even under ice. We've found seven secret caves you probably never knew existed.
This ancient rock adorns King Tut's coffin and the Sistine Chapel. And at one time it was more precious than gold. What is it about this deep blue rock that has drawn us in for centuries?