# Math Concepts

Math is often called the universal language because no matter where you're from, a better understanding of math means a better understanding of the world around you. Learn about math concepts such as addition, subtraction, fractions, ratios and more.

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### Learn More / Page 2

Science requires that we make guesses, which is why we have confidence intervals.

Bayes' theorem describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event. Sounds intimidating, but we'll walk you through it.

By Mark Mancini

Rational numbers can be expressed as the ratio of two integers, while irrational numbers, such as square roots, cannot. So, why does the difference matter?

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You may remember from math class that a prime number is a number that can only be divided by 1 and itself. But why are they important anyway?

A simple math problem may seem to some of us like an inscrutable pile of numbers and symbols, just waiting to trip us up. PEMDAS to the rescue!

By Mark Mancini

It's an important question, so come with us and we'll show you how to figure it out.

Two lines that are perpendicular to the same line are parallel to each other and will never intersect.

By Mark Mancini

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It's easy to make a Mobius strip with some paper and tape, but your mind will be blown by the mathematical concepts it unlocks.

Venn diagrams are an easy way to simplify information and visualize relationships between concepts or sets of data.

We may think the butterfly effect means that a small change (like the flap of a butterfly's wings) can have huge consequences (a tornado in China). But what if it means the opposite?

Corresponding angles are what you get when two parallel lines are crossed by a third line, creating angles that have the same relative position at each intersection. They're easy to find once you know what to look for.

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A dodecahedron has 12 flat faces, all shaped like pentagons. Here are 12 cool things you just may not know about them.

By Mark Mancini

How do you calculate absurdly high numbers without writing them out in numerals? You use scientific notation. We'll give you examples and show you how.

By Mark Mancini

The Pythagorean theorem, which explains how to calculate the longest side of a right-angled triangle, is an ancient mathematical statement that still buttresses modern-day construction, aviation and even how we navigate through traffic.

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Two mathematicians have solved a decades-old math problem by harnessing the power of a virtual supercomputer.

Whether you're a math whiz or not, there are some pretty cool number theories, beliefs and coincidences to appreciate. How down with digits are you?

By Alia Hoyt

Mathematician Andrew Booker has found the three cubes that add up to the number 33, a long-unsolved math problem.

Can you name even one female mathematician? Don't worry if you can't. That just means you need to read our article on five famous female mathematicians to up your cred.

By Dave Roos

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Whether the circle is as big as planet Mars or as small as a tennis ball, the ratio of its circumference divided by its diameter will always equal pi (3.14). But why?

By Marshall Brain & Dave Roos

For more than a century, the mass of a kilogram was defined by a weight stored in a French vault. But now, instead of a hunk of metal, the kilogram's mass will be tied to a mathematical equation.

By Dave Roos

The scutoid is kind of like the Higgs boson. Researchers theorized the new shape existed. And then they went looking for it.

Sir Michael Atiyah says he has proven the Riemann Hypothesis, one of the long-unsolved problems in mathematics.

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Spanish researchers recently uncovered a new geometric shape that allows human tissue to curve. But how?

By Robert Lamb

You've heard of Google, but what about a Googol? If not, then this tutorial is for you.

By Mark Mancini