# Math Concepts

Math is often called the universal language because no matter where you're from, a better understanding of math means a better understanding of the world around you. Learn about math concepts such as addition, subtraction, fractions, ratios and more.

### You Know White Noise, But What's Pink Noise and Brown Noise?

### Skipping Stones on Ice Makes Crazy Sci-fi Sounds

### Can you really shatter a glass with a high note?

### How Do Disposable Hand Warmers Work?

### Why Do Bubbles Pop?

### What's the World's Strongest Superacid?

### Static Electricity Can Cause Way More Than a Bad Hair Day

### Light Pollution Is Stealing the Night

### Party Trick Breakdown: Why Do Balloons Stick to Hair?

### The Surprising Silver Lining of the Atomic Age Nuclear Tests

### How Are Coroners and Medical Examiners Different?

### Viking Warrior in Ancient Grave Was a Woman

### Time May Not Exist, Say Some Physicists and Philosophers

### How Alchemy Paved the Way for Chemistry

### Who Was the First Scientist?

### A Kid-friendly Introduction to Magnets and Magnetism

### How Solenoids Work

### Why Does Ice Stick to Your Fingers?

### Kummakivi, Finland's Balancing Rock, Seems to Defy the Laws of Physics

### What Is Energy?

### Could Newly Measured W Boson Break the Standard Model?

### U.S. Scientists Achieve a Breakthrough in Nuclear Fusion. What Does That Mean?

### Hisashi Ouchi Suffered an 83-day Death By Radiation Poisoning

### Could Thorium Power the Next Generation of Nuclear Reactors?

### Why Are School Buses Yellow?

### Is This Black Hole Coming for You? It's Just an Optical Illusion

### Why Distant Mountains Appear Blue to the Naked Eye

### Learn More

There are two different scales of measuring temperature on Earth, but they merge at just one very cold number.

It's seeped into movies and popular culture, but what does "six degrees of separation" really mean? Are we really that connected to each other?

By Dave Roos

Math is a language of symbols and equations and knowing the basic signposts is the first step in solving mathematical problems.

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A new geometric shape called the "einstein" shape has been discovered and when you tile it, no repeating pattern emerges.

Dividing fractions is easy once you learn a couple of rules and remember three words — keep, change and flip.

Whether the circle is as big as planet Mars or as small as a tennis ball, the ratio of its circumference divided by its diameter will always equal pi (3.14). But why?

By Marshall Brain & Dave Roos

Mary, Queen of Scots was in the news again when amateur cryptologists found the key to decoding some letters that had remained a mystery for 500 years. How did they manage to break the code?

By Dave Roos

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The Collatz conjecture can be worked on by 9-year-old math whizzes, but it's flummoxed some of the greatest minds of the past century. Will it ever be solved?

We take the mystery out of reporting the percent error correctly and show you how to use it in real life.

By Mark Mancini

Want to know the area of your pizza or the kitchen you're eating it in? Come on, and we'll show you how to figure it out with an area formula.

The very idea of trying to subtract one fraction from another may send you into convulsions of fear, but don't worry — we'll show you how.

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You can find the distance between two points by using the distance formula. It's an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Remember that from high school algebra?

By Mark Mancini

When a peta and a tera won't do, you can now call on the quetta or the ronna prefixes. But just how big are these new metric systems of measurement?

By Alia Hoyt

How large does a random group of people have to be for a 50 percent chance to exist that at least two of the people will share a birthday?

With a little patience, you can master this trick of converting binary code to decimals — and have fun doing it!

By Mark Mancini

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Both degrees and radians represent the measure of an angle in geometry. So, how do you convert one to the other?

By Mark Mancini

Most of the world uses meters, apart from the U.S. and a few other countries. So what's an easy way to convert from meters to feet and vice versa?

By Mark Mancini

Finding the range of a set of numbers is an easy subtraction problem!

There was a time (4,000 years ago) when simply being able to add might get your name on a clay tablet or help you accumulate vast wealth.

By Dave Roos

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Converting kilogram measurements into pounds is not hard. We'll show you the textbook way plus two quick-and-dirty shortcuts.

By Mark Mancini

Many people get speed and velocity confused. It's no surprise because the terms are often used interchangeably. But they're not quite the same thing. So how do you find the velocity of an object?

By Mark Mancini

We'll show you both a quick and dirty way, and a precise, more complicated formula for converting a Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit (and vice versa).

Scientists have come up with a new formula to describe the shape of every egg in the world, which will have applications in fields from art and technology to architecture and agriculture.

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Real numbers are the opposite of imaginary numbers and include every number you can think of.

A perfect square is a number, but it can also be explained using an actual square.